Regenerative Enterprise Part 7: Regenerative Enterprise

Regenerative Enterprise

An enterprise is defined as, “a project or undertaking, typically one that is difficult or requires effort,” and, “initiative and resourcefulness.”24 The current business world is saturated with examples of degenerative enterprises (fossil-fuel extraction and power-generation, automobile manufacturing, mining, military and defense, etc.), to the extent that it is nearly impossible to function in the so-called ‘developed’ countries without their goods and services. Even as we are writing this book, we are depending on an array of degenerative enterprises!

In the last two decades, a small but growing number of businesses have sought to define themselves as ‘social enterprises’ by including positive social objectives into their mission statements and operating procedures. Much of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) movement has focused on this goal of generating social capital within and through the activities of their companies, while still maintaining an un-erring commitment to financial capital profits.

Some companies and organizations have attempted to go a step further, articulating a goal of ‘triple bottom line’ (TBL) profits: economic, environmental, and social.25 This is an excellent direction to take, and notable exemplars have emerged at different scales: Stonyfield Farms, Seventh Generation, Aarstiderne, Growing Power, and others. However, because the current system requires enterprises to create a financial capital profit or fail, most businesses that start out in this direction are forced to reduce their triple bottom line to a single bottom line.

Furthermore, even the best TBL companies lack the whole-systems viewpoint provided by the eight forms of capital. Without this lens, they (and the vast majority of all other enterprises) have so far missed several key praxis points that will support the healing and re-growth of our damaged global systems.

 

Excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

 

24 “Enterprise.” Oxford American Dictionary Online. Web. Accessed 5 March 2013.

25 Savitz, Andrew M. The Triple Bottom Line: How Today’s Best-Run Companies Are Achieving Economic, Social and Environmental Success — and How You Can Too. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. 2006

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.

Regenerative Enterprise Part 6: Harvesting the Surplus vs. Stealing the Core

The following section articulates one of the three important properties of regenerative systems in the context of the business world and the eight forms of capital.

 

Harvesting the Surplus vs. Stealing the Core

With an abundance of living, thriving edges and the large number of connections they support, healthy systems begin to generate capital surpluses. In living capital, a tree yields more fruit and seeds than could ever possibly grow into new trees. With intellectual capital, a collaborative team generates more innovations and solutions than can feasibly be put into action. It is these emergent properties and surplus capitals of healthy systems that may be harvested and exchanged in a regenerative economy.

The extractive economy forcibly steals from the core pools of different forms of capital, reducing the ability of the system to maintain itself, much less produce a surplus. This behavior has tended to mine the foundational wealth of living, cultural, social and spiritual capital. Though it does appear to create financial capital profits, it impoverishes any short-, mid- or long-term opportunity for whole-system health.

The current trend to valuate and exchange ecosystem services in terms of financial capital (carbon markets, wetland mitigation banking, etc.) has the potential to go horribly awry. Living capital should only be valued and exchanged on the marketplace to the extent that the capital being traded is a surplus. Otherwise, the same extractive practices will harvest the living core of each locality, preventing regeneration and continued health of the system. Foundational pools of capital must be kept intact – enterprises must never extract more value than can be regenerated within the capacity of the living system itself.

By cultivating capital instead of extracting it, growing the edges of a system, and increasing its internal and external connectivity, enterprises can proactively develop greater surpluses for harvest and exchange.

The forestry enterprise Windhorse Farm in Nova Scotia offers an excellent example of how living capital can be cultivated by regeneratively ‘harvesting the surplus’. Using a management system called Ecoforestry, Windhorse Farm measures the amount that their forest grows on an annual basis, and chooses to only harvest a fixed percentage of that growth. The farm also chooses to harvest slower-growing trees, leaving the best trees to continue growing the living capital of the system. By culling the lowest quality saw-logs, they ensure that the quality of the remaining timber as well as the health of the trees increases each year.

Windhorse Farm continues to cut and sell wood from a forest that has been harvested every year since 1840. They have harvested over 7.5 million board feet of timber, with 2.0 million board feet (and growing!) remaining in the forest. According to the manager James Drescher,

“If this 100-acre lot had been clear cut in 1840, and again in 1890, 1940, and 1990, the total harvest would have been, at most, 5.5 million feet, and the quality of the second, third and fourth harvests would have been much lower than the wood harvested by the annual selection methods. Of course there would be no standing merchantable timber today.”23

By harvesting the surplus living capital developed by regenerative ecoforestry management, Windhorse farm creates true wealth and avoids the extractive processes that dominate today’s business world. We now proceed to define a ‘Regenerative Enterprise’ as a venture that pro-actively grows and cultivates the foundational pools of social, cultural, spiritual, and living capital by providing goods and services in a way that creates net positive gains for the system as a whole.

 

Excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

 

23 Drescher, James W. “Enrichment Forestry at Windhorse Farm.” PDF. 2008.

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.

 

Regenerative Enterprise at Omega Institute

“What would it be like if our entire economic system looked more like an ecosystem?”

Screen Shot 2015-01-22 at 1.06.50 PM

“So much of the current world pits enterprise against the commons… I want to propose a shift. I want to put forward the idea that perhaps enterprise can actually grow the commons. Regenerative Enterprises can be in reciprocal relationships – restoring, protecting, developing, and regenerating the commons.”  – Ethan Roland, Omega Institute 2014

To watch the full video of Ethan Roland’s talk at OMEGA’s 2014 Where We Go From Here Conference, click the link below to register for free.

www.eOmega.org/online-workshops/2014-where-we-go-from-here-conference#

 

Regenerative Enterprise Part 5: Edges & Connections

The following section articulates one of the three important properties of regenerative systems in the context of the business world and the eight forms of capital.

 

Edges & Connections

Rather than simply increasing the quantity, amount, or volume of a certain form of capital, regenerative systems develop the quality, complexity, or connectivity of capital. Any framework that requires ever-increasing quantities of capital will lead to the same result as the current extractive economy: cancer-like exponential growth. For example, the infinite growth of financial capital required by today’s global economy requires an ever-increasing manufacture and consumption of material capital products. Like cancer, the current economy is extracting unsustainable amounts of living capital to maintain its exponential growth – unless the system can be transformed, this will likely lead to overall collapse. Also like cancer, some of the causes of the current extractive mindset may be ‘environmental’ factors in the personal, internal, and social ecosystems of all of us humans who maintain the system.

Infinite growth of quantities of capital is not the goal. Instead, regenerative cultivation develops the quality, the richness, and the connectivity of different forms of capital. In the current extractive economy, material capital is mass-produced, homogenous and disconnected from its place. Cultivation of material capital in a regenerative context leads to material goods and structures that are handcrafted, beautiful, directly connected to their place, and full of life. Picture the difference between a vinyl-sided modular home and a green -roofed earthen home, or the open-air bamboo and hardwood houses of the tropics. Or the difference between the dull uniformity of mass-produced dish sets and the uniquely glazed and subtly asymmetric warmth of a hand-thrown clay bowl.

For living capital, consider the example of a farm. Rather than increasing the raw quantity of goods produced, regenerative cultivation would increase the quality (nutrient density, resilience, beauty) and the diversity of the goods produced out of the same space. The number of connections between elements on the farm also increase – the inherent input requirements of one element are met by the inherent outputs of other elements. Rather than disposing of manure and purchasing chemical fertilizers, the manure is composted to create biologically-active fertilizer. The more functional interconnections are cultivated in a system, the more resilience and robustness it will exhibit when

inevitable disturbances occur.19

In practical terms, one way to increase the number of connections between elements is to increase the amount of edge or surface area in the system.20

In living ecosystems the edges between different habitats are rich in biological diversity. The blending availability of resources from each habitat creates a situation where more species can live and interact than in either of the two adjoining habitats on their own.21

If only the size of either habitat increases, the amount of edge remains the same. This does not necessarily add richness to the system. However, cultivating and growing the edge itself can offer significant benefits to both habitats without increasing the size of either.

Screen Shot 2015-01-08 at 11.18.58 AM

Figure 4.1 – Cultivating edge. The darker side has an equal amount of area in both images, while the image on the right has four times the amount of edge for interconnections and exchange.

For a well-known example of the beautiful diversity and richness of edge, consider coral reefs. They form at the edge between land and sea, anchored to firm bedrock where the agitated tropical water constantly moves. They also exhibit an incredible amount of edge within themselves: Every crenulation of coral, every waving seaweed, every tiny area of three-dimensional topography is home to a myriad of creatures. Edge-abundant coral reefs are some of the world’s most productive ecosystems, hosting millions of symbiotic relationships and a vast biodiversity.22

Another widespread example of edge in the natural world comes from examining a tree. If a tree attempted to grow the quantity of it’s biomass alone, it would look like a large spherical blob. This would negate the tree’s ability to efficiently connect nutrients from the soil with energy from the sun. Instead of optimizing for volume as an organism, trees grow to optimize edge (surface area) while minimizing the relative volume of its biomass. In other words, trees choose to produce less wood and more leaves.

Trees also cultivate a vast amount of edge underground, by spreading their roots in a dendritic fractal pattern through the soil to efficiently gain access to as many nutrients and as much water as possible. They then multiply the amount of edge several orders of magnitude by developing symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi, who trade tree-produced sugars for extended access to nutrients and moisture through their networks of fungal hyphae.

With all of this connective edge, trees explode down into the earth and up into the sky, creating a sustained and beautiful pattern of growth with multiple functions for the ecosystem as a whole.

The current global economy and society has deeply accepted the idea that “growth is good.” To turn the human desire for growth away from extraction and towards regeneration, it must be refocused on surface area and connections: Regeneratively cultivating capital means increasing the amount and complexity of edge, not just growing the size of the system.

 

Excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

19 Walker, Brian, and David Salt. Resilience Thinking: SustainingEcosystems and People in a Changing World. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006.

20 Mollison, Bill. Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual. Australia: Tagari Publications, 1988.

21 Barbour, Michael G., Jack H. Burk, and Wanna D. Pitts. Terrestrial Plant Ecology, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. 1987.

22 “Coral reefs.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Accessed 20 Mar. 2013.

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.

Regenerative Enterprise Part 4: Extraction vs. Cultivation

The following section articulates one of the three important properties of regenerative systems in the context of the business world and the eight forms of capital.

 

Regenerative Enterprise Part 4: Extraction vs. Cultivation

Extract: “To pull or take out forcibly”16

Cultivate: “To apply oneself to improving or developing,”

“Raise or grow”17

We live in a world where huge amounts of living capital are ripped from the earth, hammered and smelted and twisted into material capital, and traded to create financial capital. The scale of this extraction is hardly fathomable by the human mind. In the over-developed nations where the authors live, stories are told about why this extraction is necessary and good: “Consumers are purchasing more and more things,” “The economy must keep growing,” and others. Massive ecological and cultural degradation tell a different story: extractive industries and processes destroy the foundation of our wealth and our very lives.

In the context of this book, we define extraction as the removal of capital from a system in a way that diminishes its overall the health, function, or resilience. A nearly ubiquitous example of the current extractive economy is the mining of soils known as agriculture. Millions of tons of soil are inexorably lost every year through tillage, biologydestroying chemical fertilizers, and the resulting rapid erosion. Dr. David Pimental of Cornell University estimates that some farms lose more than 250 tons of soil per acre per year, destroying their ability to produce food: “As a result of erosion over the past 40 years, 30 percent of the world’s arable land has become unproductive.”18

The extractive economy asks, “How much can we get out of this landscape?” or, “What can we take from these people or this place to make a financial capital profit?”

Within the framework of Regenerative Enterprise, the questions become: “What are we cultivating in our interaction with this landscape? How can our connection with the system we are harvesting from grow the integrity, resilience and long-term viability of these people and this place? In this context, we define cultivation as the addition to and removal of capital from a system in a way that develops and evolves its health, function, and resilience.

When a regenerative ‘cultivation’ approach is applied to agriculture, a productive revolution ensues. Agricultural systems like Permaculture, GROW BIOINTENSIVE ®, and Holistic Management®, demonstrate that agriculture can actually grow soil instead of depleting it. How can this understanding be applied across other fields and arenas? What, exactly, are regenerative systems cultivating?

 

16 “Extract.” Merriam Webster Dictionary. Web. Accessed 5 Mar. 2013.

17 “Cultivate.” Oxford American Dictionary Online. Web. Accessed 5

March 2013.

18 Pimentel, David. “Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat.”

Environment, Development, and Sustainability Journal 8.1 (2006), 119-137.

 

An excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.

 

Regenerative Enterprise Part 3: Regeneration Defined

Regenerative Enterprise Part 3: Regeneration Defined

Using the eight forms of capital as a lens, it is evident that current human-led processes are rapidly depleting living, cultural, and spiritual capital on a global scale.15 This trajectory fundamentally limits the long-term viability of humans and other species on the planet – instead of life flourishing, it is degenerating.

In this context, degenerative systems optimize the increase of financial and material capital by depleting the fundamental generative basis of living, cultural, and spiritual capital. Degenerative systems intentionally apply intellectual, experiential, and social capital to achieve the increase of financial and material capital at the expense of living capital.

A “sustainable” system is defined as one that maintains existing pools of each form of capital, while providing for the upkeep and replacement of the fundamental living capital that all beings depend on for survival. But simply ‘maintaining’ the currently depleted state of living capital would be disastrous – 90% of all ocean fish would still be lost, two thirds of all species on earth would still be threatened with extinction, and the millions of acres of forest already cut and soil already eroded would not return.

In this context, we must move beyond sustainability and into regeneration of all forms of capital.

Regenerative systems actively build life, complexity and diversity. They grow the foundations and the potential of what humans perceive and experience as ‘wealth’.

 

15 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being:

Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005.

 

An excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.

Eight Forms and Regenerative Enterprise on The Permaculture Podcast

On October 15, 2014, Ethan Roland, co-author of Regenerative Enterprise, spoke with Scott Mann from The Permaculture Podcast.

Check out The Permaculture Podcast website for more podcasts.

Click here to listen to (or download!) the full Podcast.

Here is Scott’s post from The Permaculture Podcast:

My guest for this episode is Ethan Roland, a permaculture designer and a founder of Appleseed Permaculture. Along with his writing partner Gregory Landua, Ethan is the author of the articleEight Forms of Capital, as well as the book Regenerative Enterprise, which expands on the ideas of the original piece.

Ethan and Gregory’s work on the Eight Forms of Capital is one of the pieces that most influenced my perspective on permaculture and the different ways we can engage the various aspects of our lives to live and practice more fully what it is we love. Though financial capital is often the focus, and in our system we do need money to live, there are many ways we can create abundance in our lives.

Where this material kind of unhinged me from the system that currently exists was in understanding how much value there is in our non-financial capital, and how appreciating someone’s work doesn’t need to be in the form of a direct financial exchange. The first thank you I ever got for this show was a box containing three bottles of my favorite hot sauce, Secret Aardvark Trading Co. habanero. Or receiving an email from someone about how the podcast changed their life. Or the time someone send pictures of Ghost Pipe flowers growing on their property not far from where I live. Now I know definitively where they are and want to go visit and see them next year when they rise again, adding to my experiential and intellectual property with that plant.

Something else I’m coming to understand, which I’ll follow up on when the interview with Ethan’s mentor Carol Sanford comes out in a few weeks, is about what my core abilities are. I’m not well versed or skilled in marketing or raising financial capital. That’s not where my skill set is. I’m good at building other forms of capital, in particular social. I talk to people, make connections, and draw out the stories from others. That’s where my calling is. To make the other pieces of this work viable, I ask for help from others. I appeal to you, the listener, to help support the show. I also leave the various ways to contact me out in the open so I can give back what I’ve learned to you, to help you on your path. In the end there is a value exchange that occurs for everyone involved. I like that.

With that introspection around the eight forms of capital comes a personal understanding of our strengths and weaknesses that touches back on what Ethan said about building an ecosystem of businesses that support and grow one another. Some of us are really good at making money. Others are really good at teaching, design, implementing in the landscape, organizing, storytelling, and on and on. As permaculture practitioners let’s help one another.

I’m here to help you connect with the stories and voices you might not hear otherwise, so you can find what works for you and get down to your work. I want you to find and fulfill your calling so you can live a life of abundance. Let’s talk and make that happen.

The Show is On The Road
The show is on the road and I will be in Roanoke, Virginia, from October 20th-22nd, 2014, interviewing farmers and local permaculture practitioners. I am also delivering a presentation, “Permaculture: Creating a Better World by Design” on 630PM on October 21st, 2014, at the Roanoke Natural Food Co-Op at Grandin Village. If you’re in the area I’d love to see you there or at any of the other events I’ll be attending.

Support
If you value this show and the work of the podcast in spreading the word of permaculture to the world, lend your assistance in supporting these projects. Share links posted to the Facebook page, facebook.com/thepermaculturepodcast, with your friends or followers. Retweet messages sent from @permaculturecst. Leave reviews on iTunes or your favorite podcast sites. The show can also use your financial support, either as a one-time or ongoing monthly contribution. Find out how to do that at: www.thepermaculturepodcast.com/support.

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Regenerative Enterprise Part 2: The Eight Forms of Capital

Regenerative Enterprise Part 2: The Eight Forms of Capital

In 2009, the authors developed a new economic map to fully conceptualize and account for the world’s multiplicity of resource flows: The Eight Forms of Capital.13 Even as the soils erode away, biodiversity plummets, and ecosystems reel from the shocks of species loss, fragmentation, and climate change, economists and governments insist that economies must ‘keep growing’. How is this possible? Can our global society truly continue to grow forever?

The infinite growth required by our current global system is primarily an infinite growth of one form of capital: financial. The Eight Forms of Capital economic model recognizes that there are other forms: social, material, living, intellectual, experiential, cultural and spiritual capital. We propose that the ongoing growth of financial capital is only possible through the loss of other forms of capital.

The current global society is organized and controlled primarily through the flow of financial capital, but the survival of any human or society depends primarily on living capital and the material capital that arises from it: food, water, energy, and shelter. It is the cooperation and collaboration of people in the forms of villages, tribes, regions and nations that support each other to successfully gather these provisions of ecosystem services and transform them into the goods and services that underly the global economic system.

The Eight Forms of Capital provides a clear framework to understand this global web of interactions and transactions. The Eight Forms of Capital can be summarized as follows:14

 

Re_Blog2_VueMap_1

 

        • Social Capital – Connections, relationships, and influence. Can be complexed to webs of social indebtedness.
        • Material Capital – Non-living physical objects: Timber, minerals, metals, fossil fuels. Can be complexed to plastic & electronic products, and further into structures, infrastructure, and technologies.
        • Financial Capital – Money, currency, securities, and other instruments. Currently, facilitates the exchange of goods and services.
        • Living Capital – Soil, water, animals, plants, human health and the health of other organisms, complexed to the ubiquitous ecosystems of which humans are a part.
        • Intellectual Capital – Ideas, concepts, knowledge, “truth”. Held primarily in the human neocortex, intellectual capital is highly valued in the current society.
        • Experiential Capital – Actual embodied ‘know-how’, built from personal experience.
        • Spiritual Capital – Sometimes expressed as karma, faith or presence, spiritual capital is defined by an entity’s internal connection and awareness of a greater whole. Spiritual capital is often complexly intertwined with cultural context and Cultural Capital.
        • Cultural Capital – Shared internal and external experiences of a group of people: Cultural capital is an emergent property of the complex inter-capital exchanges in a community, village, city, bioregion, or nation. Story, myth, song, and art are tangible manifestations of cultural capital – they are also sometimes liquidated and exchanged for other forms of capital, usual financial.

 

Pools of capital can be held and developed by multiple entities, and various flows can occur within and between each form of capital:

Figure 3.2 – Multi-capital pools and flows.

RE_Blog2_CapitalPoolsFlows

The sum total of global inter- and intra-capital exchanges is the current economic system. The international trend is to deplete the pools of most forms of capital while exponentially increasing the amount of financial capital. This mono-capital trajectory has significant impacts on the sustainability of current and future generations.

 

Excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

 

13 Roland, Ethan, and Gregory Landua. “8 Forms of Capital” Financial

Permaculture, 2009.

14 ibid

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.

Regenerative Enterprise Part 1: Global Degradation

Regenerative Enterprise Part 1: Global Degradation

        According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, more than 60% of global ecosystem services are being degraded or used unsustainably.2 The basic ecosystem functions that supply what humans and other species require to survive are crumbling around us: from the provisioning of food, water, fiber and fuel to the regulation of climate, floods, droughts, and diseases. The breakdown of ecosystem services threatens countless species with extinction – projected extinction rates in the next 40 years are between 10,000 – 100,000 times that of the historical record.3

        This degradation of ecosystems is also causing significant harm to human well-being around the world.4  Loss of land- and sea-based livelihoods due to ecosystem degradation cost billions of dollars each year, levels of poverty remain high, and inequities are growing. Many people still do not have a sufficient supply of or access to ecosystem services,5  especially in vulnerable coastal, island, and tropical areas of the planet. Many of the trends in degradation will be exacerbated by rapid climate change we are experiencing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Extreme Weather predicts an overall increase in droughts, floods, heat waves, and hurricanes around the world. These extreme events will incur billions of dollars in damages and untold harm to human health and well-being, especially in coastal areas.6  In 2012, exceptional drought and ‘super storm’ Sandy grounded these severe warnings into reality, even in the financially affluent United States.

Culturally, we are also living in a time of rapid degradation. The world’s languages are disappearing at a rate even faster than that of biological diversity, with some estimating that 90% of all existing languages (nearly 7000) will be either dead or moribund within the century.7 With many of the unique beliefs, stories, songs, seeds, and foods connected to each language disappearing, this loss of languages represents an incredible loss of culture.

Many of these languages are spoken by indigenous peoples, whose lands and lifeways are threatened on a daily basis by our current extractive global society. A recent World Wildlife Fund study named the 200 places on earth that have the highest and most fragile biodiversity, and found that 95 percent of them are on Indigenous territories.8 Yet those same Indigenous lands are routinely raided for minerals, timber, farmland, oil, and other resources. Governments give industries concessions to use Indigenous land without ever consulting the Indigenous groups who live there, and in almost no case do Indigenous

Peoples benefit from the financial income generated by this activity.9

As cultures and ecosystems degrade around us on a global scale, some of the worst effects harm the world’s poorest people and are sometimes the principal factor causing poverty.10 This is painfully and graphically illustrated in India, where each year thousands of farmers who depend on healthy productive ecosystems are committing suicide because of economic, social, and environmental factors exacerbated by degraded ecosystem services.11

In this context of ecological and cultural degradation, one trend seems to be heading in the opposite direction: There is exponentially more money in existence than there ever has been before.12 Ecosystems are degrading at increasing rates, and the amount of money is increasing – what’s going on here?

 

Excerpt from:

Regenerative Enterprise: Optimizing for Multi-Capital Abundance by Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua

 

2 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being:Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005.
3 ibid
4 ibid
5 ibid
6 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX).” Geneva, June 2012.
7 Comrie, Bernard, Stephen Matthews, and Maria Polinsky, eds. The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World. New York: Quarto Inc., 1996.
8 Cultural Survival, Inc. Cultural Survival. Web. Accessed 16 Dec. 2012.
9 ibid
10 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005.
11 “Farmers’ Suicides in India.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Accessed 7 Dec. 2012.
12 Steffen, Will, et al. Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure. Berlin: Springer, 2004.

©2013 Ethan C. Roland & Gregory Landua. All Rights Reserved.